Type:injection moulding, plastics
extrusion, stretch-blow molding, thermoforming, compression molding, calendering, transfer molding, laminating, fiberglass molding, pultrusion, filament winding, vacuum forming, rotational molding
Injection moulding BrE or Injection molding AmE, is a manufacturing process for producing parts by injecting molten material into a mould. Injection moulding can be performed with a host of materials mainly including metals, (for which the process is called die-casting), glasses, elastomers, confections, and most
commonly thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers. Material for the part is fed
into a heated barrel, mixed (Using a helical shaped screw), and injected (Forced) into a mould cavity, where it cools and hardens to the configuration of the cavity:240 After a product is designed, usually by an industrial designer or an engineer, moulds are made by a mould-maker (or toolmaker) from metal, usually either steel or aluminium, and precision-machined to form the features of the desired part. Injection moulding is widely used for manufacturing a variety of parts, from the smallest components to entire body panels of cars. Advances in 3D printing technology, using photopolymers which do not melt during the injection moulding of some lower temperature thermoplastics, can be used for some simple injection moulds.
Parts to be injection moulded must be very carefully designed to facilitate the moulding process; the material used for the part, the desired shape and features of the part, the material of the mould, and the properties of the moulding machine must all be taken into account. The versatility of injection moulding is facilitated by this breadth of design considerations and possibilities.
is a high-volume manufacturing process in which raw plastic is melted and formed into a continuous profile. Extrusion produces items such as pipe/tubing, weatherstripping, fencing, deck railings, window frames, plastic films and sheeting, thermoplastic coatings, and wire
This process starts by feeding plastic material (pellets, granules, flakes or powders) from a hopper into the barrel of the extruder. The material is gradually melted by the mechanical energy generated by turning screws and by heaters arranged along the barrel. The molten polymer is then forced into a die, which shapes the polymer into a shape that hardens during cooling.
Blow molding ( BrE molding ) is a manufacturing process by which hollow
plastic parts are formed: It is also used for forming glass bottles. In general, there are three main types of blow molding: extrusion blow molding, injection blow molding, and injection stretch blow molding. The blow molding process begins with melting down the plastic and forming it into a parison or in the case of injection and injection stretch blow moulding (ISB) a preform. The parison is a tube-like piece of plastic with a hole in one end through which compressed air
The parison is then clamped into a mold and air
is blown into it. The air
pressure then pushes the plastic out to match the mold. Once the plastic has cooled and hardened the mold opens up and the part is ejected . The cost of blow moulded parts is higher than that of injection – moulded parts but lower than rotational moulded parts
Thermoforming is a manufacturing process where a plastic sheet is heated to a pliable forming temperature, formed to a specific shape in a mold, and trimmed to create a usable product. The sheet, or “film” when referring to thinner gauges and certain material types, is heated in an oven to a high-enough temperature that permits it to be stretched into or onto a mold and cooled to a finished shape. Its simplified version is vacuum forming.
Compression Molding is a method of molding in which the moulding material, generally preheated, is first placed in an open, heated mould cavity. The mold is closed with a top force or plug member, pressure is applied to force the material into contact with all mold areas, while heat and pressure are maintained until the molding material has cured. The process employs thermosetting resins in a partially cured stage, either in the form of granules, putty
-like masses, or preforms.
Calendering is a finishing process used on cloth, paper, or plastic film. A calender is employed, usually to smooth, coat, or thin a material.
With textiles, fabric is passed under rollers at high temperatures and pressures. Calendering is used on fabrics such as moire to produce its watered effect and also on cambric and some types of sateens.
In preparation for calendering, the fabric is folded lengthwise with the front side, or face, inside, and stitched together along the edges.The fabric can be folded together at full width, however this is not done as often as it is more difficult.
The fabric is then run through rollers that polish the surface
and make the fabric smoother and more lustrous. High temperatures and pressure are used as well. Fabrics that go through the calendering process feel thin, glossy and papery.
Transfer molding (BrE moulding) is a manufacturing process where casting material is forced into a mold. Transfer molding is different from compression molding in that the mold is enclosed rather than open to the fill plunger resulting in higher dimensional tolerances and less environmental impact. Compared to injection molding, transfer molding uses higher pressures to uniformly fill the mold cavity. This allows thicker reinforcing fiber matrices to be more completely saturated by resin. Furthermore, unlike injection molding the transfer mold casting material may start the process as a solid. This can reduce equipment costs and time dependency
. The transfer process may have a slower fill rate than an equivalent injection molding processes.
Lamination is the technique of manufacturing a material in multiple layers, so that the composite material achieves improved strength, stability, sound insulation, appearance or other properties from the use of differing materials. A laminate is a permanently assembled object by heat, pressure, welding, or adhesives.
Fiberglass molding is a process in which fiberglass reinforced resin plastics
are formed into useful shapes.
The process usually involves first making a mold and then using the mold to make the fiberglass component.
Pultrusion is a continuous process for manufacture of composite materials with constant cross-section. The term is a portmanteau word, combining “pull” and “extrusion”. As opposed to extrusion, which pushes the material, pultrusion works by pulling the material.
Filament winding is a fabrication technique mainly used for manufacturing open (cylinders) or closed end structures (pressure vessels or tanks). This process involves winding filaments under tension over a rotating mandrel. The mandrel rotates around the spindle (Axis 1 or X: Spindle) while a delivery eye on a carriage (Axis 2 or Y: Horizontal) traverses horizontally in line with the axis of the rotating mandrel, laying down fibers in the desired pattern or angle. The most
common filaments are glass or carbon and are impregnated in a bath with resin as they are wound onto the mandrel. Once the mandrel is completely covered to the desired thickness, the resin is cured. Depending on the resin system and its cure characteristics, often the rotating mandrel is placed in an oven or placed under radiant heaters until the part is cured. Once the resin has cured, the mandrel is removed or extracted, leaving the hollow
final product. For some products such as gas bottles, the ‘mandrel’ is a permanent part of the finished product forming a liner to prevent gas leakage or as a barrier to protect the composite from the fluid to be stored.
Vacuum forming is a simplified version of thermoforming, where a sheet of plastic is heated to a forming temperature, stretched onto a single-surface
mold, and forced against the mold by a vacuum. This process can be used to form plastic into permanent objects such as turnpike signs and protective covers. Normally draft angles are present in the design of the mold (a recommended minimum of 3°) to ease removal of the formed plastic part from the mold.
Rotational Molding (BrE moulding) involves a heated hollow
mold which is filled with a charge or shot weight of material. It is then slowly rotated (usually around two perpendicular axes), causing the softened material to disperse and stick to the walls of the mold. In order to maintain even thickness throughout the part, the mold continues to rotate at all times during the heating phase and to avoid sagging or deformation also during the cooling phase. The process was applied to plastics
in the 1940s but in the early years was little used because it was a slow process restricted to a small number of plastics
. Over the past two decades, improvements in process control and developments with plastic powders have resulted in a significant increase in usage.